The catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome or CAPS is characterized by multiple organ bankruptcy. The mortality rate for this form of antiphospholipid syndrome is about fifty. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are prone to this condition. It might also arise in other rheumatic diseases such as systemic sclerosis, Sjogren syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis. The disorder stems from coagulation and will thus lead to blood clots or thrombosis. This process happens in both veins and arteries. Clotting systems will fail due to the catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome. Therefore blood flow to vital organs will be limited. That is why the mortality rate is very high.
Dealing with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in clinical terms
The condition becomes catastrophic after a progression from the milder form of antiphospholipid syndrome. Arterial blockage will then lead to further complications in the body. Some of these might include blood platelet output failures and miscarriage. There has been a registry that specifically collects information about the catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in order to help clinicians and patients when handling the condition. The trigger in about 50% of the cases is due to an infection, medication and injury. Likewise an operation can lead to the escalation of the condition. Cytokines will be activates due to a tempest and that will eventually lead to organ bankruptcy. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome can affect any part of the body at any time. However the kidneys have been identified as a particularly vulnerable part of the body. The patient will arrive at the emergency center with severe kidney problems.
The symptoms include reduced or no urine. They will also have a much higher blood force than is seen in healthy individuals. Mind roles will deteriorate and the patient may fall into a coma. In about a quarter of cases there will be strained respiration as well as non productive coughing. Patients will have left ventricular bankruptcy as well as blockages around the eyes. These blockages are accelerated due to hypertension as well as cerebral hemorrhaging. The treatment program for antiphospholipid syndrome includes anticoagulation drugs and steroids. In some cases Plasmapheresis as well as intravenous immunoglobulin has been utilized in order to control some of the symptoms. The amount of plasma is reduced in order to improve blood circulation.
The blood is put under a process of centrifugation so that the plasma can be replaced with a saline solution. At that point fresh frozen plasma as well as other liquids will be returned to the patient in a solution. If the patient has been suffering from recurring miscarriage then they might be advised to take aspirin. Aspirin is reputed to “thin” the blood. In some cases intravenous immunoglobulin may be used in the process of treating the patient. There are selected cases where cyclophosphamide is used to treat the condition. The most important thing is to preserve the life of the patient. The development of antiphospholipid syndrome might be a chronic condition where it becomes important to monitor the patient for any early signs. That will ensure that there is less likelihood of fatalities.